URBAN HISTORY REVIEW Vol. 37, No. 1
Les ingénieurs sanitaires à Montréal, 1870–1945 : Lieux de formation et exercice de la profession
This article studies the evolution of the sanitary engineers in Montreal, from their emergence in the nineteenth century until the middle of the twentieth century. Poorly researched by historians of medicine and, more generally, by specialists in urban history, these experts, however, led in the development of infrastructures related to public health. In spite of their important role, it is difficult to track down the history of their group, since they were not officially represented by organizations and their training, within schools of engineering or medical colleges, not fully independent. By describing the career of some sanitary engineers and by analyzing the development of the training in sanitary engineering, the authors intend to shed light on a group of experts relatively ignored in urban history.
Social Gospel in the City: Rev. W. E. Gilroy and Hamilton Clergymen Respond to Labour Issues, 1911–1918
This paper examines clergymen’s response to labour issues in early-twentieth-century Hamilton, Ontario. While the majority of Hamilton clergymen ignored the issue of labour, a small group of ministers, with Congregational minister W. E. Gilroy at the helm, established strong ties with organized labour. These ministers championed labour’s cause both inside and outside the pulpit. In addition to making labour issues a regular subject of their sermons, they organized workingmen’s meetings to discuss social issues, publicly supported and spoke at the meetings of working-class organizations, and positioned themselves on the side of unemployed and striking workers.
Old Home Week Celebrations as Tourism Promotion and Commemoration: North Bay, Ontario, 1925 and 1935
This paper examines Old Home Week Celebrations held in North Bay, Ontario, in 1925 and 1935 in terms of both tourism promotion and the public use of the past. Tourism promotion in 1925 reflected a booster attitude and the belief that North Bay would soon benefit from the construction of the Georgian Bay Ship Canal. In 1935, the nature of tourism had changed and the major promotional strategy used was to link a visit to the Dionne Quintuplets in Corbeil with travel to North Bay. In 1925 North Bay also celebrated its history, using a pageant parade, celebrated its pioneers, and turned the granting of city status into a public drama. The 1935 Old Home Week celebration, in contrast, lacked focus, but the decentralization of its organization created an opportunity for the French Canadians of North Bay and area to participate in the event to a much greater extent than in 1925 and to commemorate the 400th anniversary of Jacques Cartier’s arrival in Canada. This memorialization reflected their desire for a greater involvement in civic affairs and the monument they erected created a lasting symbol of their presence in the city. Old Home Week celebrations can be used to study both tourism promotion and the social order of the city.
Reform and Empire: The Case of Winnipeg, Manitoba, 1870s–1910s
During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a host of journalists, ministers, medical doctors, businessmen, lawyers, labour leaders, politicians, and others called for an assault on poverty, slums, disreputable boarding houses, alcoholism, prostitution, sweatshop conditions, inadequate educational facilities, and other “social evils.” Although they represented an array of political positions and advocated a range of strategies to deal with what they deemed problems, historians have come to term this impulse “urban reform” or the “urban reform movement.” Over the past several decades, there have developed two main approaches to the study of this flurry of activity in Canada. Some historians, mostly writing before the mid-1980s, argued that it was an effort to reconstitute “the nation,” which arose in response to the anonymity and social conflict and ills apparent in modern, urban-industrial society. More recently, scholars have emphasized that in Canada reform often preceded urban-industrial development, and that the institutions that reformers supported, like later state agencies, were focused upon moral regulation and in particular fostering and sustaining a liberal order premised on patriarchal concepts of gender and related notions of race. This article demonstrates that important as urban industrial development and moral regulation were, understanding reform in Canada requires the addition of another layer of complexity to already existing analyses. In particular, it shows that we must conceive of Canadian reformers and their institutions as rooted in and shaped by a broader and longer history of European, and particularly British, imperialism.